Starting open-ended projects like some of the projects in this nanodegree program or even like the project of learning a whole new subject can feel bewildering. For example, starting the project of earning a PhD will certainly bewildering to me. It can be hard to proceed when you don’t know what parts of the information you’re trying to learn will be important in the future. Frankly, there’s an infinite amount of information in the world and any part of it could lead to interesting places. That’s one of the reasons why we try in this nanodegree program, to give you context for why you’re learning things, how they’re relevant to your goals and how they’ll be useful in the future. Also, with unstructured problems, you may not really know when you have found the answer and are done. When I worked on unstructured problems during my PhD, it felt like trying to climb a set of stairs in the dark, feeling around with my foot until I found a stair to step onto. What was helpful to me in this type of situation was to let goals be my guide. So, if I was trying to build something, I would know I was done when it was built and it worked. If I was trying to analyze some data, it was important to decide what question I was trying to answer, and so I would know I was done when I had an answer to that question. Sometimes, the goals are obvious, like finish a course, but sometimes you have to decide what the goals are, like when you have to decide what questions you’re trying to answer. We’ve provided you with some goals in your projects in the form of rubric criteria to help you direct your efforts, but bigger picture, deciding what you are trying to achieve can give you a way to measure your progress. So, now that you’ve got some substantial progress under your belt in this big project that is your nanodegree program, and growth journey that that’s a part of, how are you feeling about the goals you’ve set out to achieve? Recognize the headway that you’ve made so far, in terms of what you’ve learned, reasoned through and created, you’re making great progress.