So far you’ve seen that, the state of a car contains multiple values which we’ve been putting into a Python list. But these values are typically contained in one data type, a state vector. A vector is similar to a list in Python in that it contains multiple values but they are mathematically very different. A vector is a kind of matrix, which for now you can think of as a grid of numbers. And matrices are a math data type, similar to something like an integer or a float. And similar to an integer or a float, we can multiply matrices, we can scale them, add two of them together and so on. This is called linear algebra, and linear algebra will come up again and again in self-driving car systems. It’s in everything from car movement to deep learning algorithms and image analysis. In this section, we’ll see how state vectors and matrices can be used together to help us efficiently predict a new state and localize a car.